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Titanium Ions Released from Oral Casting Alloys May Contribute to the Symptom of Burning Mouth Syndrome
J Oral Med Pain 2017;42:102-108
Published online December 30, 2017
© 2017 Korean Academy of Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine

Yang Mi Park1, Kyung-Hee Kim2, Sunhee Lee1, Hye-Mi Jeon3, Jun-Young Heo1, Yong-Woo Ahn1, Soo-Min Ok1, Sung-Hee Jeong1

1Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Dental Research Institute, Institute of Translational Dental Sciences, Yangsan, Korea
2Department of Oral Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
3Dental Clinic Center, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea
Correspondence to: Sung-Hee Jeong
Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 49 Busandaehak-ro, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan 50612, Korea
Tel: +82-55-360-5242
Fax: +82-55-360-5234
Received October 31, 2017; Revised November 24, 2017; Accepted November 27, 2017.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: Many metal ions released from dental casting alloys have been reported to influence the intraoral symptoms of oral lichen planus (OLP) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary metal ion levels and the prosthetic duration as well as to evaluate the time-dependent morbid effects of metal ions in OLP and BMS patients.
Methods: Three study groups consist of the following subjects respectively: 17 OLP patients, 12 BMS patients, and 12 patients without oral symptoms. The salivary concentrations of 13 metal ions (copper, cobalt, zinc, chromium, nickel, aluminum, silver, iron, titanium [Ti], platinum, tin, palladium, and gold) were measured by Laser Ablation Microprobe Inductively coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.
Results: The Ti ions had statistically significant differences among the groups with a prosthetic duration of less than 5 years. There were no significant differences between all ion levels among the groups wearing dental cast alloys for over 5 years. In the BMS group, the level of Ti ions in patients with prosthetic restorations less than 5 years old were significantly high (p<0.05).
Conclusions: In the BMS group, 3-60 months during which salivary Ti levels were higher were matched with the duration of burning symptoms (15.6±17.1 months). Furthermore, Ti ions were statistically high in the oral cavity of BMS patients fitted with dental casting alloys for 5 years. These results suggest that Ti ions released from dental implants and oral prostheses could attribute to burning sensation of BMS.
Keywords : Burning mouth syndrome; Metals; Saliva; Titanium

December 2017, 42 (4)